Training Details

Personal Analysis

A candidate’s personal psychoanalysis is primarily a private healing relationship between the candidate and the analyst, for the purpose of resolving unconscious psychodynamic and characterological issues and to provide for the personal emotional growth and well-being of the candidate. In addition, it is important that a candidate in analytic training experience the psychoanalytic process as a patient. This provides the candidate with an experiential grasp of transference and resistance and allows exploration of unconscious dynamics that might otherwise hamper one’s functioning as a fully realized psychoanalyst.

Any candidate not already in treatment with an approved analyst must begin Personal Analysis with a member of the NPAP Training Institute before the beginning of the second full semester of course work. All Training Institute members are approved as personal analysts.

Frequency and Duration: While most candidates choose to remain in Personal Analysis throughout training, the minimum requirement is 450 hours conducted three times a week.

Entering Candidates Already in Psychoanalytic Treatment: NPAP would not pass judgment on the personal value of anyone’s treatment, yet the Training Institute has a responsibility for making sure that all candidates experience the type of Personal Analysis outlined in the above standards.

If an entering candidate is in treatment with a psychoanalyst not affiliated with the NPAP Training Institute, the outside analyst’s credentials must be reviewed to determine whether the analyst is acceptable for NPAP’s requirements. The Registrar will send the NPAP Personal Analyst Form directly to the outside analyst for verification purposes. (Entering candidates already in treatment with a member of the NPAP Training Institute may of course continue with that analyst.)

Any candidate who changes analysts before completing the minimum hourly requirement must change to a member of the NPAP Training Institute.

Personal Analysis at the Enrollment Level: A minimum of 250 hours of treatment, at three times per week, must be completed in order to progress from the Enrollment level to the Matriculation level. Candidates who choose to apply for the Readiness for Clinical Practice evaluation prior to Matriculation must have completed at least 60 hours of three-times-per-week psychoanalysis.

Personal Analysis at More Advanced Levels: All candidates are expected to continue Personal Analysis going into the Matriculation level. By the end of the Matriculation period they must have completed a minimum of 450 hours of Personal Analysis to be eligible to progress to Readiness-for-Control.

Most candidates find their experiences in psychoanalysis so important to their understanding and growth that they continue Personal Analysis beyond this 450-hour minimum, up to the completion of their training through the Readiness-for-Control level.

Exclusions: Group analysis, group therapy, or any type of individual therapy conducted on a once- or twice-a-week basis will not be counted toward fulfilling any part of the Training Institute’s requirements. Treatment with any therapist not eligible or approved by NPAP as a Personal Analyst will not be counted.


Course Work at All Levels of Training

Once admitted to NPAP, candidates may begin taking courses at the beginning of any semester or Intersession. The Training Institute encourages individuals to proceed at the pace that is most appropriate and meaningful for them. Every effort is made to offer courses in sequences and frequencies that allow a candidate to register for an accelerated schedule, when desirable, or select fewer courses, when desirable, without undue worry about con-flicts in scheduling later on.

Class Schedules: Required courses and full-credit electives meet for 12 sessions of 90 minutes each, during Fall and Spring semesters. Some electives meet in six-session seminars and count as half a course. Registration for all courses is usually limited to 12 candidates; classes are often smaller than this. Courses meet once a week, either from 7:00 to 8:30 p.m. or from 9:00 to 10:30 p.m. on Monday through Thursday. Required courses are usually scheduled twice yearly on different days and times, to accommodate candidates’ scheduling needs. Some 6-session courses are also offered in the Winter Intersession.

Grading: Instead of grades, candidates receive “credit” or “no credit” for each course taken. Instructors write evaluations of each candidate. The candidate receives the evaluation, and a copy is kept in the candidate’s file. Candidates submit anonymous evaluations of each course and instructor.

Absences: Candidates are permitted two absences per 12-session course, or one absence per 6-session course. If a candidate is absent more than the allowed number of sessions, credit for the course will ordinarily not be given. This policy is meant to ensure that a candidate has sufficiently integrated all components of the course. If the instructor judges that there are extenuating circumstances, he or she has sole authority to allow a candidate to undertake extra work in order to receive credit for missed classes or requirements.

Incomplete: A report of “Incomplete” is given if a candidate fails to complete one or more of any required papers, reports, examinations, or other assignments. If extended time is needed, arrangements must be made with the instructor before the end of the term. An Incomplete may be changed on the Registrar’s records if the candidate completes the required work in a way satisfactory to the instructor, within one year from the end of the course.

Leave of Absence from Course Work: Candidates must register for at least one course per year or apply to the Dean of Training for a one-year leave of absence, which can be extended with the Dean’s approval. Registration and Annual Fees must be maintained during any leave. A candidate on a leave of absence will not receive referrals from the Theodor Reik Clinical Center for Psychotherapy and must continue in NPAP-approved supervision for any current TRCC patients.


Evaluation for Advancement

Candidates progress from Enrollment to the optional Readiness for Clinical Practice, or from Enrollment to Matriculation, from Matriculation to Readiness-for-Control (RFC), and from RFC to successful Case Presentation and graduation, upon the recommendations of successive Evaluation Committees. These committees are chosen from among members of the Training Institute who do not have a prior personal or professional relationship with the candidate. The committee meets individually with the candidate to discuss aspects of theory and practice encountered in the candidate’s training, to assess strengths and weaknesses, to suggest areas for future development, and to recommend whether or not the candidate is ready to proceed to the next level.

Timing: Evaluations for all levels are scheduled twice yearly. To request an Evaluation Committee, candidates must submit an Application for Advanced Evaluation form to the Registrar before the deadline.

Optional Clinical Discussion Groups: The Institute offers informal Clinical Discussion Groups for candidates at any level of training. The candidate presents case material to a small group of members, who will discuss such issues as points of theory, treatment technique, and the transference-countertransference matrix and will comment on the candidate’s overall presentation of analytic work. There is no formal evaluation or record of these optional meetings.

Candidate Appeals: Effort is made to enable every candidate to advance and complete the program. Wherever there are special circumstances or concerns, both the Training Committee and the Board of Trustees participate in reviews and/or appeals of decisions affecting a candidate’s progress.

Rights of the Training Institute: The Training Institute reserves the right to postpone or terminate the training of any candidate it believes does not reasonably demonstrate the potential to practice psychoanalysis. Such postponement or termination is entirely within the purview of the Institute, and the Institute will not be liable for or prejudiced by any such action it may take. Any candidate who is subject to such a judgment may appeal the decision to the Training Institute Board of Trustees.


Enrollment: Beginning Course Work

Courses offered to candidates at the Enrollment level are numbered in the 600s, and include both required courses and electives. Detailed descriptions of courses for this level may be found by following the Curriculum link at the bottom and to the left of this page.

We mention here some special considerations and options for the Enrollment level.

Two 600-level courses are devoted to practical matters of working with patients: PP1 and PP2, Introduction to Psychoanalytic Practice. Designed as preparation for seeing patients in a psychoanalytic framework, they address issues of practice management from a specifically psychoanalytic standpoint, including setting up an office, scheduling sessions, handling fees, ethical considerations, and establishing the therapeutic relationship. These courses are required of all candidates who do not have psychoanalytically based clinical experience. Candidates with such clinical experience may apply to the Dean of Training for exemption from one or both of these courses.

Two clinical practicum courses are required of all candidates: CP1 and CP2. These courses address a full range of psychoanalytic clinical practice issues in depth. They are designed to be taken in sequence when the candidate begins to see patients in psycho-analytic psychotherapy, after either passing the Readiness for Clinical Practice evaluation or passing to the Matriculation level.

A six-session course in Case Presentation by Guest Analysts offers candidates at all levels of training an opportunity to hear and discuss the way different psychoanalysts conduct treatment. Candidates are required to take this course three times, twice on the Enrollment level (as R660A and R660B), and again on the 700 or 800 level (as R760 or R860).


Readiness for Clinical Practice – An Option

Candidates on the Enrollment level may elect to apply for the Readiness for Clinical Practice (RCP) evaluation after completing two full semesters and an Intersession, and at least 60 hours of Personal Analysis. This option enables candidates to begin seeing patients under supervision before they have passed to the Matriculation level.

Course work must include Introduction to Psychoanalytic Practice, PP1 and PP2 (unless exempt), at least two 600-level courses, and Case Presentation by Guest Analysts (R660A) in the Intersession.

The RCP evaluation is decided by a committee of three Training Institute members who, in discussion, will assess the candidate’s readiness to begin conducting clinical practice under supervision.

Candidates who have passed the RCP evaluation must complete all remaining requirements on the Enrollment level before pro-ceeding to the Matriculation level and must take CP1 and CP2 within a year of passing the RCP evaluation.



Eligibility: Candidates are eligible to be considered for advancement to the Matriculation level when they have completed all required course work on the 600 level and at least 250 sessions of Personal Analysis. A candidate proceeds to the Matriculation level of training upon the recommendation of an evaluation committee of three Training Institute members.

Curriculum: Courses on the Matriculation level are numbered in the 700s. Detailed descriptions of required and elective courses on this level may be found by following the Curriculum link at the bottom and to the left of this page.

If the two clinical practicum courses, CP1 and CP2, were not taken on the Enrollment level after passing the RCP evaluation, they must be taken in conjunction with beginning NPAP-sanctioned clinical work during the first year on the Matriculation level.

The Case Presentation by Guest Analysts course (required twice at the Enrollment level) must be taken again at either Matriculation or the RFC level. This course is numbered R760 at the Matric-ulation level.


Clinical Experience Under Supervision

During Matriculation, candidates embark on the treatment of patients, if they have not already done so. At this level, candidates are responsible for conducting a minimum of 360 hours in the practice of individual psychoanalytic psychotherapy, under NPAP Training Institute supervision, for a minimum of 50 supervisory hours.

In accordance with New York State regulations, NPAP recognizes two categories of candidates:

Candidates Seeking the License in Psychoanalysis. This group consists of those individuals who do not currently have a valid license that includes psychoanalysis within its scope of practice in New York State, as well as candidates who may have such a license but wish to add the License in Psychoanalysis. Recent regulations by New York State impose certain requirements on the clinical work these candidates engage in as part of their training. NPAP’s Theodor Reik Clinical Center (TRCC) provides a clinical setting that fully meets the State’s regulations, and the NPAP curriculum provides all courses required for the New York State license.

Candidates Not Seeking the License in Psychoanalysis. This group includes individuals who presently hold New York State licenses, which permit them to practice individual psychotherapy, and who intend to practice psychoanalysis under those presently held licenses. These licenses include clinical psychology, social work, medicine, physician’s assistant, registered professional nurse or nurse practitioner. The “scope of practice” for these licenses (termed “exempt professions”) includes individual psychotherapy and psychoanalysis conducted in private offices.

Candidates seeking the New York State License in Psychoanalysis must affiliate with TRCC, see their patients at NPAP (or another clinical setting that may be established by TRCC), and select a supervisor. Any private referrals received by such candidates must apply to TRCC and must be seen under the same conditions as TRCC referrals.

Candidates who are not seeking the New York State license must arrange for weekly private supervision with any eligible member of the Training Institute, other than someone who has served as the candidate’s Personal Analyst. These candidates also have the option of affiliating with TRCC in order to receive patient referrals; they may see these patients in their private offices, under appropriate NPAP supervision.

All candidates must remain in supervision with a qualified analyst, on a one-time-a-week basis, throughout the Matriculation level. A candidate with four or fewer clinical hours a week may arrange supervision every other week. After completing the minimum required 50 hours with one NPAP supervisor, a candidate may change to another NPAP Training Institute member for supervision.

Once a year, each supervisor submits a written evaluation of the candidate’s work and a report of the number of sessions in the previous 12 months. This record is shared with the candidate, and a copy is kept in the candidate’s permanent file.

Candidates currently licensed in exempt professions who are seeking a New York State License in Psychoanalysis are free to continue their private practices independently of NPAP, but only those patients seen under TRCC auspices will be counted as meeting the State license requirements.



Eligibility: Candidates are eligible to be considered for advancement to the Readiness-for-Control level when they have completed

(a) all required courses at the 600 and 700 levels,
(b) a minimum of 450 hours of Personal Analysis,
(c) a minimum of 360 hours in the practice of individual psychoanalytic psychotherapy,
(d) a minimum of 50 hours of supervision.
A candidate proceeds to the RFC level upon the recommendation of an evaluation committee of three NPAP Training Institute members.

Curriculum: All candidates must complete the required courses at the 800 level and a minimum of four elective courses. Some electives at the 800 level are 6-session seminars, two of which count as one elective course. A candidate has the option of fulfilling one elective course requirement by repeating any 12-session required course in the curriculum with a different instructor. Electives completed during any Intersession at any level of training will be counted for the RFC level elective requirement.

If the Case Presentation by Guest Analysts course has been taken only twice, it must be taken again at the Readiness-for-Control level, as R860.

Control Analysis: At the RFC level candidates undertake the psychoanalysis of at least two different patients, each seen at least three times per week, under the intensive, weekly supervision of separate control supervisors for each treatment.

Supervision of Control Patients: The Training Institute’s minimum requirement for supervision of control cases is 150 sessions, apportioned as follows: (a) for one of the patients seen in Control Analysis, weekly sessions with a control supervisor must continue for at least 100 hours; (b) for the other patient in Control Analysis, the candidate’s sessions with a different control supervisor must continue for at least 50 hours. These treatments and supervisions of two different control patients may run concurrently.

Duration of Control Analysis with Patients: Each Control Analysis must be ongoing (at a minimum of three times per week) while the candidate is completing the number of sessions required with the control supervisor. In practical terms, this means that one Control Analysis must continue for at least two years and the other Control Analysis for at least one year.

Selecting Control Supervisors: A candidate may select as a control supervisor any eligible member of the Training Institute, other than the candidate’s Personal Analyst. If the patient treated in Control Analysis is a Theodor Reik Clinical Center referral, then the control supervisor must be affiliated with TRCC.

Optional Evaluations: After completing the Control Analysis of at least one patient, a candidate may apply to the Dean of Training to present a prepared case before a committee, for discussion and feedback. Intended as an aid in preparation for Final Case Presentation, this presentation can be either a work-in-progress or a rehearsal of the formal presentation the candidate intends to present to a final case committee. (Candidates may also choose to participate in the less-formal Clinical Discussion Groups described above). Participation in these options is not included in the candidate’s official record.

Continuing Supervision: After completing both control analyses, a candidate must remain in weekly supervision with a Training Institute Member until the candidate passes Case Presentation.


The Certificate of Completion of NPAP’s New York State License Qualifying Program in Psychoanalysis

A Certificate of Completion of NPAP’s New York State License Qualifying Program in Psychoanalysis will be issued upon the candidate’s request, after the candidate has passed the RFC evaluation and has completed the following requirements:

50 clock hours of individual supervision with one supervisor and at least 100 clock hours of individual supervision with another supervisor. (A “clock hour” may be interpreted as one 45- or 50-minute supervision session plus preparation time, adding up to 60 minutes.) The two supervisions may be concurrent, and may include discussion of more than one case. New York State makes no specification as to weekly frequency of patient hours.

At least 300 clock hours of supervised clinical work experience, conducted onsite at NPAP under the auspices of TRCC. (An “hour” may be interpreted as one 45- or 50-minute therapy session plus preparation time, adding up to 60 minutes.)

At least 300 clock hours of personal psychoanalysis. (As above, an “hour” consists of one 45- or 50-minute session plus preparation time, adding up to 60 minutes.) For its purposes, the State defines “psychoanalysis” as at least one session per week.

A two-hour workshop on Identification and Reporting of Child Abuse and Maltreatment. (NPAP will provide this training.)

Note that the Certificate of Completion of NPAP’s New York State License Qualifying Program in Psychoanalysis is NOT equivalent to graduation from NPAP. It attests only that the candidate has met the State’s minimum requirements for psychoanalytic training. NPAP’s requirements for graduation include additional components: course work not mandated by the State, completion of two control analyses, personal psychoanalysis conducted at least three times per week, and successful presentation of a psychoanalytic case to an evaluation committee.

Note that the Certificate of Completion should be requested no sooner than 2 years before the expected date of licensure.(See “An Important Consideration” below.)

New York State License in Psychoanalysis

Requirements to Sit for the Licensing Examination

  • The candidate has conducted 1500 hours of clinical practice under weekly supervision.

According to New York State, at least 750 of these hours must be in “face-to-face practice” and the remaining hours may be comprised of “indirect activities, including supervision, introspection, personal analysis and professional development.”

The 300 hours required for NPAP’s Certificate of Completion are included in the 1500 hour requirement.

  • All other requirements will have been met by the candidate’s having received NPAP’s Certificate of Completion.

Application for the License

Candidates must initiate action with the State as soon as the NPAP Certificate of Completion has been obtained because there is a State-mandated timetable of three interlocking events:

1) issuance of the Certificate of Completion,
2) application for the License in Psychoanalysis and
3) application for a Limited Permit to practice psychoanalysis.

The Limited Permit allows a candidate to continue to work with patients after receiving the Certificate of Completion and before becoming licensed as a psychoanalyst. This is a requirement of the State and of NPAP as well.

In order to legally continue to practice, immediately upon obtaining the Certificate of Completion the candidate must simultaneouslyapply for both the License and the Limited Permit. The State will not allow application for the Limited Permit until the License has been applied for, and the License cannot be applied for until the Certificate of Completion has been granted, so the timely completion of each of the steps in the proper order is critical to being able legally to continue to practice.

An Important Consideration:

The Limited Permit is issued for one year and, at the discretion of the New York State Education Department, may be renewable for one additional year. Within this period, the candidate must have accumulated the total 1500 clinical hours (as described above), and must pass the State licensing examination. If this is not accomplished within the two years maximum time for which the Limited Permit may be issued, the candidate loses any future opportunity to apply for the License in Psychoanalysis. Therefore, it is in the best interest of license-seeking candidates to consider delaying the request for the Certificate of Completion until they can confidently expect to reach the 1500-hours requirement and sit for and pass the licensing exam within two years.


Final Case Presentation and Certification

The last step prior to graduation from NPAP consists of successfully making a Final Case Presentation to an evaluation committee of five members of the Training Institute. A candidate must apply for this evaluation within three years after completing all other requirements, although most candidates apply as soon as they are eligible. Evaluations are scheduled twice a year.

Eligibility: The candidate must have completed

(a) a minimum of 450 hours of Personal Analysis;
(b) a minimum of 360 hours of clinical experience under supervision of at least 50 hours duration;
(c) two control analyses under two different NPAP control supervisors – 50 hours with one supervisor and 100 with the other – and
(d) all required courses and optional electives at the Enrollment, Matriculation, and Readiness-for-Control levels.

The candidate can meet with the Dean of Training to review his or her training file to be sure that it includes all required evaluations and reports. The file will then be reviewed to determine eligibility to proceed.

The Evaluation Committee: A committee is assigned to meet with the candidate on the Training Institute’s scheduled day for Case Presentation evaluations. The candidate may invite one Institute member to serve on the Evaluation Committee. If that Institute member agrees to serve, he or she will inform the Dean of Training in writing.

The Candidate’s Case: The candidate must present a patient who has been in psychoanalysis (at three sessions or more per week) for at least one year. The candidate may submit a written case at least one month before evaluations are scheduled, to be distributed in advance to committee members and discussed at the time of the first meeting, or the candidate may present the case orally at the first meeting.

The Meetings: The Case Evaluation Committee meets with the candidate on the scheduled evaluation day and has the option to either pass the candidate at that time or to request one or two more meetings within a period of three months. If the candidate is not passed on the first meeting, a second meeting is mandatory. If at a second meeting the candidate is not recommended for graduation, the committee has the option of requesting a third meeting, or concluding that the candidate not be passed after two meetings.

Candidate Recommended for Graduation. After all other requirements have been met, the candidate attends the graduation ceremony and receives a certificate confirming completion of NPAP’s training program in psychoanalysis.

Candidate Not Recommended for Graduation. The candidate will have five more years in which to apply for a maximum of two more Case Presentations, conducted before different evaluating committees. During this time candidates are encouraged to avail themselves of all courses, programs, and activities in the Training Institute.

Graduation and Membership

Graduates are eligible for full membership in both the NPAP Association and the NPAP Training Institute.

Members of the Association are welcomed into the collegial community of NPAP, where they can participate in ongoing programs and study groups sponsored by the Continuing Education Committee, NPAP’s Neuro-Psychoanalytic Clinical Study Group, the Library Committee, and other Association-sponsored activities. Association members may also accept appointment to special committees, and run for election to standing committees and positions on the Board of Directors.

Members of the Training Institute are approved as Personal Analysts for candidates and may also apply for positions on the Institute faculty. Three years after graduating and upon completion of a supervision course, which is offered biannually, members of the Training Institute are qualified to supervise candidates’ work with patients. In the democratic structure and tradition of NPAP, all Institute members are eligible to present lectures and workshops, accept appointment to special committees, and run for election to standing committees and positions on the Board of Trustees.

Tuition and Fees

Tuition is $400 for a 12-session course and $200 for a 6-session course. (Candidates not granted a leave of absence must take at least one course per year.) A registration fee of $250 per year is due at the Fall registration; this includes a $10 library fee and a $30 fee for a subscription to the NPAP journal, The Psychoanalytic Review. Tuition and fees are subject to periodic review and change by the Board of Trustees of the Training Institute of NPAP.

The yearly registration fees are nonrefundable and are required of all candidates, whether they are taking courses each term or not, whether they have elected to take a year’s leave of absence or have been granted an extension of this absence. Otherwise, the candidate will become ineligible to participate in TRCC and will have to apply for re-enrollment in the Training Institute by submitting a new application with a $50 fee.

For auditors, tuition and fees are the same as for enrolled candidates. See tuition costs above. An auditor may take courses at the 600 level only.


Registration for any term is not complete, nor is a candidate listed on class rosters, until tuition and fees have been paid in full. A schedule of courses covering the academic year is provided to candidates well in advance, including names of instructors, days and times of courses, and separate registration forms for each term. Extra copies of such materials, as well as all other NPAP forms, can be obtained from the NPAP office.

Late Registration: Late registration requires the consent of the instructor. There is a late-registration fee of $25, and applications must be received in time to process before the second meeting of class.

Refunds: Candidates who are unable to attend a course for which they have registered may obtain a partial tuition refund if they notify the Registrar in writing no later than one week after the first class has met. An administrative charge of $10 will be incurred for schedule changes and cancellations.

Transcripts: An official transcript of course work completed at the Training Institute may be obtained upon written request to the Registrar, accompanied by a fee of $25.

Electronic Communications: E-mail for the Training Institute or for the Association may be sent to (Candidates should note that registration requires forms that cannot be submitted electronically.)

Completed Paperwork: Registration may be submitted by postal mail or in person. Payment can be either by check made out to the NPAP Training Institute, or by credit card. Further information or assistance is available from the Registrar. Correspondence should be addressed to:

NPAP Registrar
40 West 13 Street
New York, NY 10011
Phone: 212 924-7440
Fax: 212 989-7543